We purchase energy for our factory in Finland from an external supplier. The required energy can be divided into electricity, heating and steam.
In 2019, only electricity produced with nuclear energy was bought for the factory in Nokia, Finland. As the energy sources for heating and steam generation, we use biomass and natural gas. The biomass power plant that supplies our factory in Finland reduces the use of fossil fuels in favor of local energy sources in the region. In Nokia, Finland, about 42% of all used energy is produced with renewable energy sources.
Our Russian factory uses natural gas as an energy source. We buy the electricity from an external supplier but we use our own power station for the energy required for heating and steam.
Our Energy Savings working group continued its activities in 2019. Unfortunately, we did not achieve our target of reducing our yearly energy consumption by 1% per production ton. The energy consumption increased 0.4% from the previous year.
However, the target of reducing energy consumption by 3% was already exceeded in 2018, and the total reduction was 10.4% between 2016 and 2019.
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
We calculate our tire production’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from raw material purchasing to the disposal of the product in compliance with the ISO 14064 standard. Our Russian factory uses its own power station for generating most of the energy it needs. Therefore, the factory’s direct GHG emissions exceed those of the factory in Finland.
We are seeking a 20% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2020, and a 30% reduction by 2030. The point of reference comprises our 2013 Scope 1 and scope 2 emissions in relation to production. The actual reduction from 2013 was 44% in 2019, which means that we met and exceeded the target.
In 2019, our location-based scope 2 emissions were approximately 46,300 tons CO2 eq. The emission calculation is based on Finland’s and Russian’s average emissions intensity of grids. Market-based scope 2 emissions were approximately 24,700 tons CO2 eq.
Nokian Tyres wants to contribute to tackling climate change by setting ambitious science-based climate targets. In May 2018, Nokian Tyres joined the Science Based Targets initiative with the aim of setting more precise targets that are assessed and validated by an external organization.
Nokian Tyres reached its previously set targets to reduce CO2 emissions well ahead of schedule. The new climate goals will be linked to the company’s value chain as well as the environmental impacts of products. The company aims to achieve validation for its Science Based Targets in 2020.
Previously, scope 3 emissions had been partly included in our CO2 emission calculations. In 2018, we started screening downstream emissions and, in 2019, we calculated our scope 3 emissions as required by the Science Based Targets initiative. Year 2018 was chosen as the base year.
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, VOCS
In Finland, we follow the EU VOC Directive, which stipulates that emissions are calculated based on the used solvents. We use solvents in our factory only in the production of heavy tires (also known as industrial tires) and retreading materials for the purpose of improving adhesion.
The VOCs from retreading material production and the assembly of heavy tires are collected and conveyed to a catalytic incineration plant. In the summer of 2019, the retreading unit was moved from Nokia, Finland to Sastamala and is now operated by a subcontractor. In Sastamala, we have an incinerator for solvent emissions.
However, collecting solvent emissions from the production of heavy tires poses a challenge. In the production of heavy tires, it is not possible to seal the emission sources in such a way that all emissions could be collected and conveyed for incineration.
In Finland, we aim to comply with the total emission limit of the EU VOC Directive, which is 25% of the solvents used. In 2019, the total solvent emissions were 49% of used solvents.
VOC emissions in relation to production increased approximately 51% compared to previous year in Nokia, Finland, and are thus above the level required by the EU VOC Directive. The increase is partially due to moving the retreading unit away from Nokia to Sastamala, which changed the balance in the calculations. In internal analysis the level was still found to be larger than expected, and a new measurement will be organized to confirm the result.
VOC emissions from the retreading production in Sastamala, Finland, were 4,45 tons, which is 18.2% of the use of solvents. No solvents are used in tire manufacture at our Russian factory.
PARTICLE EMISSIONS (DUST)
Particle emissions are caused by the processing of powdery chemicals in our compound mixing department. The mixing equipment is fitted with effective ventilation and dustcollection devices, and the best separation rates achieved by water cleaners exceed 99%. We measure particle emissions with particle concentration and differential pressure gauges. In addition, outside experts carry out regular concentration measurements.
The measured particle concentrations have complied with the permit limits at both of our factories. The dust that passes through the filter system mainly causes an aesthetic inconvenience and poses no harm to the environment or health.
EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY PRODUCTION
An independent company annually measures the nitrogen and sulfur emissions from energy production at our factory in Russia. Our nitrogen and sulfur emissions are below the set emission limits.
According to surveys that we have commissioned, odor emissions are momentary. The mastication process for softening natural rubber causes discharges of compounds during the precipitation and dehydration phases of rubber milk that results in an unpleasant odor in the near surroundings. We use droplet separators for reducing the odors from mastication. We have also managed to lower the number of separate mastication processes, thereby reducing the related odors.
Some odors are generated during the tire curing process. The quantity of the curing fumes released in the process is directly proportional to the amount of cured rubber. The concentrations of individual substances in the fumes are very small.
In the past two years, our factories have introduced new odor control equipment that represents the best available technology (BAT). In Vsevolozhsk, the technology covers all the mixing lines, whereas in Nokia the technology is being implemented gradually.
In 2019, we were contacted once concerning odor emissions from our Finnish retreading unit. In August 2019, the operations of our retreading unit were transferred from Nokia to Sastamala, Finland. We have received two complaints of both odor and noise from local residents in Sastamala and are working on finding a solution to the problems.
Our production facilities have noise limits subject to their environmental permits. We regularly track and measure noise emissions. According to the measurements, we are below the noise limits.