The energy we use can be divided into electricity, heat and steam. We purchase energy for our factories from external suppliers. We generate some of the electricity and steam ourselves in 2022, about 19% of all energy used in our tire factories was produced from renewable energy sources.
In 2022, only CO2 emission-free electricity was procured for the Finnish factory. Steam is generated in the nearby biomass power plant. Energy is provided by solar panels to our administration building in the US factory and to the Visitor Center building in the Nokian Tyres Spain test center, for example.
Energy intensity, GJ/production tonne
Energy consumption within the organization, TJ
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
We calculate our tire production’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from raw material purchasing to the disposal of the product in compliance with the ISO 14064 standard and GHG protocol. We generate part of the energy needed in our own power stations excluding the factory in Finland. Therefore, the Finnish factory’s direct GHG emissions are below those of the other factories.
In 2022, our location-based scope 2 emissions from tire production were approximately 38,870 tons CO2 eq. Market-based scope 2 emissions were approximately 17,070 tons CO2 eq.
Nokian Tyres wants to contribute to tackling climate change by setting ambitious science-based climate targets. In May 2018, Nokian Tyres joined the Science Based Targets initiative with the aim of setting more precise targets that are assessed and validated by an external organization. The climate goals, Science Based Targets, were published in May 2020. The four targets are in line with the Paris Agreement, and the base year for the first three targets is 2018 and 2015 for the fourth target. All the targets should be achieved by 2030.
Direct greenhouse gas emissions, scope 1, t CO2 eq
|Tire production total||71,510||77,670||63,200|
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions, market based, scope 2, t CO2 eq
|Tire production total||19,800||25,580||17,070|
Greenhouse gas emissions intensity ratio, scope 1 + scope 2, t CO2 / production t
|Tire production total||0.53||0.44||0.42|
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, VOCS
Solvents or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) form our most significant emissions into air. As the legislation concerning VOC emissions is country-specific, our calculation and reporting of VOC emissions varies by country.
In Finland, we calculate the VOC emissions according to the EU VOC directive, which is based on the used solvents. We use solvents in our factory only in the production of heavy tires (also known as industrial tires).
The VOCs from the assembly of heavy tires are collected and conveyed to a catalytic incineration plant. However, collecting solvent emissions from the production of heavy tires poses a challenge. In the production of heavy tires, it is not possible to seal the emission sources in such a way that all emissions could be collected and conveyed for incineration.
In Finland, we aim to comply with the total emission limit set in the environmental permit, which is 60% of the solvents used. In 2022 the total solvent emissions were 68% of used solvents. In spring 2022 we started discussions with environmental authorities related to our VOC emission requirement in the environmental permit. The key topic in the conversations were the environmental effects of the VOC emissions.
As a result, in the fall we conducted a spread modelling of the VOC emissions in order to estimate the impacts of the VOC’s in the nearby surroundings of the Nokia factory. According to the modelling, the VOC concentrations and the environmental effects are minor. Furthermore, our solvent use has decreased over 40% compared to 2018. As a next step, we will continue discussions with the authorities and plan to have our environmental permit updated.
No solvents are used in tire manufacture at our US factory. According to the local legislation, emissions are calculated based on usage of raw materials. VOC emissions are generated due to the raw materials used in the processes.
VOC emissions, t
PARTICLE EMISSIONS (DUST)
Particle emissions are caused by the processing of powdery chemicals in our compound mixing department. The mixing equipment is fitted with effective ventilation and dustcollection devices, and the best separation rates achieved by water cleaners exceed 99%. We measure particle emissions with particle concentration and differential pressure gauges. In addition, outside experts carry out regular concentration measurements.
The measured particle concentrations have complied with the permit limits at both of our factories. The dust that passes through the filter system mainly causes an aesthetic inconvenience and poses no harm to the environment or health.
EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY PRODUCTION
An independent company measures the nitrogen and sulfur emissions from our own energy production plants. Our nitrogen and sulfur emissions are below the set emission limits.
You can see our NOx and SOx emissions from our Corporate Sustainability Report 2022.
According to surveys that we have commissioned, odor emissions are momentary. The mastication process for softening natural rubber causes discharges of compounds during the precipitation and dehydration phases of rubber milk that results in an unpleasant odor in the near surroundings. We use droplet separators for reducing the odors from mastication. We have also managed to lower the number of separate mastication processes, thereby reducing the related odors.
Our factories have introduced new odor control equipment that represents the best available technology (BAT). In our US factory, the technology covers all the mixing lines and all master batch mixing lines in Finland. We have also managed to lower the number of separate mastication processes, thereby reducing the related odors.
Some odors are generated during the tire curing process. The quantity of the curing fumes released in the process is directly proportional to the amount of cured rubber. The concentrations of individual substances in the fumes are very small.
Our production facilities have noise limits subject to their environmental permits. We regularly track and measure noise emissions. According to the measurements, we are below the noise limits.